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Sunday, December 4, 2022

African countries and their Independence Day.

In the 17th century AD, European countries scrambled for and partitioned Africa from 1880 to 1900. By 1905, all lands and continents of Africa had been divided and colonized by these European countries. 

  • Britain took threshold of eighteen (18) African countries
  • France took over twenty (20) countries
  • Spain controlled three (3) countries
  • Portugal controlled five (5) countries
  • Italy had two (2)
  • Belgium controlled a total of three (3) Africa countries. 

Ethiopia and Liberia were the only countries that weren’t colonized due to strong resistance from their citizens. Liberia at the time was a dwelling place for freed slaves from America, they became a country in 1847. 

 These colony conditions were reversed over the course of the next century by independence movements; with South Africa being the oldest. The peak year for independence came in 1960 when about seventeen countries gained independence. Over the years, three Africa countries also gained their independence from fellow Africa countries such as;

  • Sudan from Egypt, Namibia from South Africa
  • Eritrea from Ethiopia
  •  and the latest, South Sudan from Sudan. 

Although, some countries which had gotten independence were later colonized either by the same country or by another country; where they finally got their independence

To date, Western Sahara which had once gained her independence under Spanish rule got reclaimed by Morocco in 1975 and has still not gained its independence. They were reclaimed by Morocco over a fight with the Polisario Front and Morocco; making her the only non-self-governing country of Africa. 

Africa Countries and their Independence date

These independence days are now being celebrated as national day holidays in most countries of Africa including Western Sahara. Below are the dates of independence for African nations. 

Rank Country  Independence date Prior ruling country 
Ethiopia Was never colonized 
Liberia July 26, 1847  Not applicable but its citizens are freed slaves of the American colonization society 
South Africa Formerly May 31, 1910.
Independently but remained a monarch under the British on December 11, 1931.
Became an independent nation May 31, 1961 
 Britain  
Egypt Feb 28, 1922 Britain 
Libya Dec 24, 1951 Italy  
Sudan Jan 1, 1956 Egypt and Britain  
Morrocco March 2, 1956
April 7, 1956
October 29, 1956
April 27, 1958
June 30, 1969 
France
Spain
International bodies
Spain
Spain 
Tunisia March 20, 1956 France 
Ghana March 6, 1957 Britain 
10 Guinea October 2, 1958 France  
11 Senegal April 4, 1960 France 
12 Togo April 27, 1960 French administered by UN 
13 Mali September 22, 1960 France 
14 Madagascar June 26, 1960 France 
15 Congo DR June 30, 1960 Belgium 
16 Somalia July 1, 1960 British and Italy  
17 Benin August 1, 1960 French  
18 Niger August 3, 1960 France 
19 Burkina Faso August 5, 1960 France 
20 Cote-d’Ivoire August 7, 1960 France 
21 Chad August 11, 1960 France 
22 Congo August 15, 1960 France 
23 Central republic of Africa August 13, 1960 France 
24 Gabon August 16-17, 1960 France 
25 Nigeria October 1, 1960 Britain  
26 Mauritania November 28, 1960 France  
27 Sierra Leone April 27, 1961 Britain 
28 Cameroon October 1, 1961 French administered by UN 
29 Tanzania December 9, 1961 Britain 
30 Burundi July 1, 1962 Belgium 
31 Rwanda July 1, 1962 Belgium administered by UN 
32 Algeria July 5, 1962 France 
33 Uganda October 9, 1962 Britain 
34 Kenya Dec 12, 1963 Britain 
35 Malawi July 6, 1964 Britain  
36 Zambia October 24, 1964 Britain 
37 Gambia February 18, 1965 Britain 
38 Botswana September 30, 1966 Britain  
39 Lesotho October 4, 1966 Britain  
40 Mauritius March 12, 1968 Britain  
41 Swaziland September 6, 1968 Britain  
42 Equatorial Guinea October 12, 1968 Spain 
43 Guinea Bissau 24 September, 1973.
It was later re- colonized and gained independence again on 10 September, 1974 
Portugal  
44 Mozambique June 25, 1975 Portugal 
45 Cape Verde July 5, 1975 Portugal 
46 Comoros July 6, 1975 France 
47 Sao Tome Principle July 12, 1975 Portugal  
48 Angola November 11, 1975 Portugal 
49 Western Sahara Feb 28, 1976 (still a non-self-governing country) Gained independence from Spain and was later reclaimed by Morocco  
50 Seychelles June 29, 1976 Britain  
51 Djibouti June 27, 1977 France 
52 Zimbabwe April 18, 1980 Britain 
53 Namibia March 21, 1990 South Africa mandate 
54 Eritrea May 24, 1993 Ethiopia 
55 South Sudan July 9, 2011 Sudan 

To learn more on Africa history, click link

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